The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2023 , Vol 65 , Num 5
Cinacalcet therapy in a child with novel homozygous CASR p.Glu353Lys mutation causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1: case report and review of the literature
Serkan Bilge Koca 1
1 Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Health Sciences, Kayseri City Hospital, Kayseri, Türkiye DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2022.1040 Background. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is one of the conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia and normo-hypophosphatemia in childhood. Heterozygous Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene mutations cause FHH, and homozygous CASR gene mutations cause neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). Cinacalcet is an allosteric modulator of Calciumsensing receptor (CaSR), and has been used in the treatment of these clinical entities in recent years.

Case. A 26-month-old boy was examined for a recurrent rash. During the evaluation, hypercalcemia (13.3 mg/ dL), hypophosphatemia (2.3 mg/dL) and inappropriately normal PTH level (67 pg/mL) were observed. Neck and renal ultrasonography were normal. The parathyroid scintigraphy was unremarkable. The patient`s family members were also evaluated, and hypocalciuria (fractional excretion of calcium were 0.01%, 0.04% on two separate tests) was detected concurrently with the patient`s hypercalcemia. The mother`s serum calcium was 10.2 mg/dL, the father`s was 10.6 mg/dL, and the brother`s was 12.8 mg/dL. CASR gene sequencing showed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 4 (c.1057G>A), which had generated a substitution of the amino acid glutamate to lysine at codon 353 (p.Glu353Lys). This mutation was homozygous in the children and heterozygous in the parents. Fluid hydration, furosemide, oral phosphorus, prednisolone, pamidronate and cinacalcet treatments were used in the management of hypercalcemia of the proband. A longer and more effective control was achieved with cinacalcet treatment.

Conclusions. FHH can be seen in heterozygous as well as homozygous CASR gene mutations. Different clinical findings may occur in different individuals from the same family. Cinacalcet therapy can be used successfully in the treatment of individuals with FHH. Keywords : calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), cinacalcet, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, hypercalcemia

Copyright © 2016