The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2023 , Vol 65 , Num 4
The effects of glucocorticoid plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) vs IVIG alone on platelet activation in children with Kawasaki disease
Qiong-qiong Wang 1 ,Li-Yun Zheng 2 ,Sheng Zhao 2
1 Department of Cardiology, Provincial Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University
2 Department of Cardiology, Provincial Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, HeFei, China
DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2022.571 Background. Even though intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a current treatment for Kawasaki disease (KD), 10–20% of patients require additional therapy. This study seeks to investigate the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids plus IVIG on KD and to ascertain the subsequent effect on platelet activation during the acute phase.

Methods. A total of 32 children with KD were randomly classified into two groups: the experimental group (16 cases) and the control group (16 cases). The control group was exposed to IVIG (2 g/kg), whereas children in the experimental group were treated with IVIG (2 g/kg) + glucocorticoid. Peripheral venous blood samples were obtained from all participants before treatment as well as three days post-treatment to test platelet activation levels with procaspase activating compound-1 (PAC-1) antibody, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-6 (IL- 6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Fever duration posttreatment was documented for both groups. Additionally, the coronary arteries in both groups were evaluated during three months of treatment.

Results. After treatment, the experimental group had remarkably lower levels of TNF-α, CRP, PCT, IL-6, PAC- 1, and TLR4 relative to the control group. The fever persistence rate was considerably elevated in the control group compared to the experimental group (log-rank, P=0.024). In addition, the z-score of coronary artery size dropped after IVIG + glucocorticoids treatment compared to the control group, although this difference was not significant.

Conclusions. The IVIG + glucocorticoids can quickly mitigate the inflammatory response and platelet activation. Moreover, it can also improve clinical symptoms in children with KD. Keywords : Kawasaki disease, corticosteroid, intravenous immunoglobulin, platelet activation, coronary artery lesions

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