The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2005 , Vol 47 , Num 4
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and anesthetic management
Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey Başgül E, Çeliker V, Gözaçan A. Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and anesthetic management. Turk J Pediatr 2005; 47: 348-358.

Sleep-related breathing disorders require special attention in children who spend a considerable time sleeping. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Symptoms include hyperactivity, enuresis, headache, failure to thrive, and increased respiratory effort and total sleep time. The most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Coexisting diseases are obesity, neuromuscular and craniofacial anomalies, and Down’s syndrome. Early diagnosis is important to minimize neurocognitive, cardiac and developmental complications.

Polysomnography is the gold standard for diagnosis. Although the features of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are distinctly different from that in adults, it may predispose to the adult type of the syndrome.

As therapy concerns several surgical approaches as well as conservative techniques, anesthetic management calls for particular attention. Pre- and postoperative sedation must be performed cautiously and patients must be watched closely with respect to airway obstruction and hypoventilation. Difficult intubation must always be considered. Keywords : apnea, obstructive, sleep, children, general anesthesia

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